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Glossary of Pipe Fittings & Flanges

This section gives you some idea about some of the most common terms used in pipe fittings and flanges.

A B C E F G H I J L
M N O P R S T U W  

A

Adapter: A fitting needed for changing from one type of end condition to another.
ANSI: American National Standards. A piping specification.
ASME: American Society of Mechanical Engineers. A piping specification.
ASTM: American Society for Testing Materials. A piping specification.
Ambient Temperature: The average temperature of the atmosphere in the area of an appliance.
Aqueous: Containing water

B

Ball valve: Opens by turning a handle attached to a ball inside the valve.
BSP: British Standard Piping. A piping specification.
Bushing: A pipe fitting, threaded on both the inside and outside, used for joining pipes with different diameters together.
Bulkhead fitting: Used to attach flexible pipes with the help of male adapters.

C

Coupling:A fitting that joins two pieces of pipe.
Cast Iron: Metal formed by casting in molds.
Compression Fitting: A sealed pipe connection without soldering.
Cross: Used for 4-way branch connections.

E

Elbows: Change direction of pipe.

F

Ferrule: Consists of a circular clamp which is used to hold together.
Female thread: Threaded on the outside.
Flange: A type of pipe fitting that connects via nuts and bolts.

G

Gate valve: It is a type of valve having a gate that moves perpendicular to flow of the service.
Globe valve: Linear motion valves with spherical design.

H

Hollow plug: A hollow plug is a valve used to restrict or prevent the flow of a liquid or gas through a pipe.
Hex plug: The hex pipe plug is threaded in the end and the top of the plug takes a hexagon shape.

I

I.D.: Inside diameter. All pipes are sized according to their inside diameter.

J

Joint thread: A connection in which the internal and external fittings are threaded and they are also screwed together.

L

Lap joint flange: Flanges are used on piping fitted with with lapped pipe or with lap joint stub ends.

M

Male thread: Threaded on the inside.

N

Nipple: A length of straight pipe with male threads on both ends.

O

O.D.: Outside diameter. All pipes are sized according to their outside diameter.
Orifice flange: Flanges where orifice plate or flow nozzle is used.

P

Pipe fittings: Available in various shapes, sizes and materials, they are used to connect pipes.
Plug: Cap end inserted into the end of tubing to dead-end the flow.

R

Reducer: A fitting that connects pipes of different sizes.
Rigid coupling: Used to connect rotating members such as shafts.

S

Sanitary Fitting: Fittings used to join the assorted pipes in a drain, waste and vent system.
Sleeve: A fitting with a base plate and attached to a sleeve portion.
Stop Valve: A valve that controls the flow of water.

T

Tee: A T-shaped pipe fitting with three openings used to create branch lines.

U

Union: Three-piece fitting that joins two sections of pipe and they also can be disconnected without cutting the pipe.

W

Wye: A Y-shaped fitting with three openings used to create branch lines.



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