Fitting by Types
Pipe fittings are widely demanded for any piping and plumbing systems
used in industrial and commercial applications. Fittings allow pipes to
be joined or installed in the appropriate place and terminated or closed
where necessary. Fittings are available in various shapes and sizes.
They can be expensive, require time, and different materials and tools
to install. They are an essential part of piping and plumbing systems.
There are thousands of specialized fittings manufactured. Each type of
pipe or tube requires its own type of fitting, but usually all pipe
fittings share some common features. Pipe fittings are available
everywhere where plumbing materials are sold.
How are pipe fittings connected to pipes?
Pipe fittings are either male fittings or female fittings. In threaded
pipe fittings, female threads are on the inside while male threads are
on the outside. Pipe fittings that have one female end and one male end
are called street fittings. Pipe fittings are used to connect pipes or
tubes in two ways:
Accordingly pipe fittings are organized as follows:
- By threading: Threaded pipes screw together to connect or
join. Generally metal pipes are threaded and they have threaded
- By slip fit: Slip fit pipes use sleeves that slip into
one another. The plastic pipes are either threaded or slip fit.
Purpose of a pipe fitting:
- Male threaded: Exterior threads. Are screwed into the
inside of pipe end of a larger diameter with internal threading.
- Female threaded: Interior threads. Receive male threaded
- Male slip fit: There are no threads. Receive a narrower.
- Female slip fit: Female slip fit: There are no threads.
Made to slip into slightly larger male sleeve.
The basic purposes of any pipe fitting are as follows:
Selection criteria for pipe fittings:
- Connecting the bores of two or more pipes or tubes.
- Connecting pipe sections.
- Connecting a pipe to a different apparatus.
- Changing the direction of fluid/liquid flow.
- Maintaining or regulating the flow.
- Closing and sealing a pipe.
Pipe fittings are to be chosen considering certain factors. They are as
- Connection types: When purchasing pipe fittings, you
should be aware of the fact that a fitting can have two different
connector types. One end of the fitting might be female threaded
while the other female threaded. One end might be male slip while
the other end is threaded, in the case of plastic fittings. They can
also have matching ends which can accommodate any requirement.
- Materials of construction: As a rule, the pipe fitting
should be of the same material as the material used in the making of
the pipe in which it is to be fitted. However, in some cases,
materials conforming to certain codes or standards can also be used
in pipes of another material.
- Check for flow: To keep the flow consistent, the ends of
pipe fittings should be slightly larger than the rest of the pipe so
that they can accommodate connections without narrowing the inner
diameter (ID) of the pipe.
- Type of fitting: Besides pipe materials, pipe fittings
are identified by the type of fitting threaded or slip, male
- Size: When measuring the size of pipe fittings, it is to
be noted that the male threaded fittings are measured to the outside
edge or OD, while female fittings are measured to the inside edge of
the inlet or ID.
- Thickness: Just as pipes are available in a number of
different thicknesses or "schedules", so also the pipe
- Design: Each pipe or tube is designed to carry certain
specific types of fluids, liquids, gases, chemicals under varying
conditions. Accordingly, the pipe fittings are also available in
variety of designs.
- Standards and codes: There are certain standards and
codes set by various organizations by which the different pipe
fittings are graded. For example, ASTM, ASME, BSP etc. are certain
standards assigned to pipe fittings and those standards dictate
Types of pipe fittings:
Depending on the purposes served, pipe fittings can be categorized as
- Pipe fittings to extend or terminate pipe runs: For
example, Couplings, Adapters, Unions , Caps and Plugs Pipe.
- Fittings to change a pipe's direction: For example ,
- Pipe fittings to connect two or more pipes: For example:
Tees, Cross, Side-inlet Elbows, Wyes
- Pipe fittings to change pipe size: For example, Reducers,
- Pipe fittings to manage or regulate flow: For example,
- Pipe fitting tools: For example, Pipe fasteners
- Pipe flanges
On the basis of the above categories, we give below an idea about
the various types of pipe fittings available in the market.